How to become a Unity developer for VR and AR

‘WordPress for VR’: Meet the team trying to democratize virtual reality

At a recent workshop in Dumbo’s Made in NY Media Center, I expected to be a fish out of water. The class, dedicated to covering the basics of WebVR, an experimental JavaScript API for virtual reality on the web, was billed as catering to developers. My development experience: building a makeshift personal website in HTML and CSS, plus a long-ago course in JavaScript I barely remember.

For dramatic VR to succeed, music must become the director

We’ve all experienced music’s power to change our mood or drum up feelings of nostalgia, fear or excitement. And beyond entertainment, numerous studies have proven that music can inspire action and actually impact change.

Baidu opens augmented reality lab, begins integrating AR into search

Chinese search giant Baidu is looking to further entrench itself in the world of augmented reality, announcing today that it is establishing an AR lab to research and build experiences that more tightly integrate the digital experiences we have on our devices with the world around us.

Virtual-Reality Firm Spaces Raises $6.5M

Los Angeles-based virtual- and mixed-reality firm Spaces has raised $6.5 million in series seed funding, having previously raised $3 million. The investment was led by China-based Songcheng Performance Development Co. (also an investor in the initial round), with additional investment from Comcast Ventures.

‘Dear Angelica’: A VR film that steps inside a painter’s brain

At an early point in “Dear Angelica,” you switch from watching an animated movie to living inside it. It feels a little like stepping into a dream, except it isn’t one sprung from your own mind, but that of an artist leading you into hers.

Best VR Racing Games: Feel Adrenaline Rush Every Hour

VR racing games actually give you a kick while you are playing these games sitting in your couch. Chris McCormack once quoted, “Fact One: Races are won or lost in key moments. Fact Two: Success in the sport is, above all else, about enduring suffering.” The car racing has always fascinated all of us be it be watching on television or playing it on video games or play stations.

Here’s What We Know About ZeniMax v. Oculus VR

Over the past two weeks, ZeniMax Media and Oculus have been duking it out in the Earle Cabell Federal Building and Courthouse in Dallas, TX, and we’ve been observing and taking notes.


This time we are not going to travel from one place to another. Instead, we will stay and explore one particularly interesting region in Turkey – Cappadocia.

The region is located in the eastern part of Turkey and even though the name itself dates back to 6th century BC, but it’s been proven that people lived there much earlier – around 6500 BC – and that’s a lot of history that shaped the spirit of the whole region. It boasts not only cultural, but also geological heritage, as a number of places is like anything else on the planet. Whether you seek natural beauties or architectural miracles, this is the right place for you.

Heiner Straesser brings you an amazing series of panoramic photos from Cappadocia, which gives you the image of what the place really looks like. Explore ancient churches and chaples, or other buildings and enjoy some stunning views over nature which is truly special.

Opinions on the ideal VR, AR and MR headsets for the near future

I am a co-founder of two companies (Phosphor Games and TRIXI studios) that in 2016 shipped games on HTC Vive, Oculus, PSVR, Lenovo Tango, and are wrapping up applications on Google Daydream, GearVR, and HoloLens. Making applications for these systems means spending thousands of hours with the devices; experimenting and prototyping uses that will never go public.

Fashion meets virtual reality

Ace Indian fashion designer Manish Malhotra launched his virtual reality fashion show at the Innovation Centre and Training Academy of Etihad Airways airlines.

VR startups are about to die. Investors should relax.

One of the earliest VR startups, Envelop launched in 2014 as an effort to bring the traditional Windows desktop experience into VR, and drew the interest of high-profile VCs including Madrona and GV. It would have allowed users to create immersive 3D computing environments, effectively rendering screens obsolete.

Academics, researchers ponder how quickly VR and AR will impact education

Academics and researchers will gather at Harvard Friday to explore how virtual and augmented reality will be used for education. About 10 researchers will present research papers that will be compiled into a book “Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Realities in Education” that will launch in the summer. The conference is hosted by the Harvard Graduate School of Education, The Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University, a joint venture between the University and NetDragon, and The Fujian Virtual Reality Industrial Base, an incubator for virtual reality companies.

VR as the Most Powerful Surveillance Technology or Last Bastion of Privacy? It’s up to Us.

Virtual reality has the potential to enable so many amazing utopian futures, but it also has the potential to become one of the most intimate surveillance technologies that could create a Big Brother dystopia of political and economic control. But if privacy considerations are built into virtual reality technologies from the beginning, then Accomplice investor Sarah Downey argues that the metaverse could actually be one of the last bastions of privacy that we have in our lives.

GE Just Launched a Branded Virtual Reality Series About Science

 GE hoping to bridge a storyline between science and art, has just debuted a new documentary miniseries in virtual reality. This week, the tech company released the first of five films that aim to show a different side of innovation beyond just labs. Shot by Here Be Dragons, the series—”The Possible”—aims to let people see the possibilities of science and tech within real-world settings. The films let viewers cruise across salt atop land speeders, fly high in the air on hoverboards and walk through the woods and in the lab with robots built by Boston Dynamics. (The first film,” Hello Robot,” debuted today on Within, an app that houses VR content from Here Be Dragons, The New York Times, United Nations, Vice and others.)

The Royal Shakespeare Company Paves Way For Virtual Reality Theater

Arthur C. Clarke once said: “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” 
If that’s true, then the Royal Shakespeare Company is well on its way to casting actual spells over its audiences.

Oculus founder headed to court over allegations of stolen tech and bogus origin story

After purchasing Oculus just over two years ago, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg is just beginning to reap the benefit. Oculus finds itself in the fortunate position of being an industry leader in a market that’s just beginning its ascent. It’s also about to appear in court over allegations of stolen technology and a false origin story.

Believe the Hype: HypeVR’s Volumetric Video Capture is a Glimpse at the Future of VR Video

Today’s most immersive VR video productions are shot in 360 degree video and 3D. Properly executed 360 3D video content can look quite good in VR (just take a look at some of the work from Felix & Paul Studios). But—assuming we can one day achieve retina-quality resolution and geometrically perfect stereoscopy—there’s a hurdle that 360 3D video content simply can’t surmount: movement inside of the video experience.

Three VR Firms Merge to Form Virtual Content Group

In the tech industry its fairly common place for mergers to happen, companies want to use each others expertise to advance their own projects. What’s slightly more unusual is when three businesses decide to do just that, but this week the Virtual Content Group (VCG) officially announced its launch.


Hi all! It looks like another virtual trip over the world, thanks to some of the magnificent panoramic photos the 360Cities photographers uploaded recently. And there’s a lot to admire again!


Winter wonderland by Rami Saarikorpi (click the picture to open the pano)

Let’s start in Finland – and you can be sure it’s really cold over there these days. This is Kontiolahti, which really looks like winter wonderland. Even though you would not feel wonderful being down there in that temperature, would you?


Redwood Memorial Grove Track and Pier at Lake Tarawera by Christian Kleiman (click the pictures to open the panos)

These two panos from New Zealand give you an image of how beautiful the nature really is over there. A deep forest and a pier at a quiet lake. If New Zealand is too far for you to travel, our panoramic photos can help!


Dead Tool by Juan José Torrado (click the picture to open the pano)

This is a creepy one. It seems like this old windmill has not been working for a while and it could easily be considered as haunted – especially thanks to this great photo, which makes it look quite scary.


National Assembly of Ecuador by Santiago Salinas (click the picture to open the pano)

How cool is this place? This certainly does not look like some other national asseblies, parliaments ets. – all shiny and colourful. One would imagine how lovely it could be, working there, however, there’s some serious stuff they discuss there!


Berlin from Cathedral Church by luis davilla (click the picture to open the pano)

No doubt, Berlin is a wonderful city. But how beautiful is it from above, especially at night? Luis took this pano from atop of the Berlin Cathedral and the result is magnificent. The clear sky at dawn, street lights below… Brilliant job.


More amazing panoramic photos coming your way!


Berlin Gendarmenmarkt 2016 Christmas Market by Willy Kaemena (click the picture to open the pano)

Kids Visiting Vieux Quebec by Thomas K Sharpless (click the picture to open the pano)

Göynük Village by Heiner Straesser (click the picture to open the pano)

Nerik 10-3 by Heiner Straesser (click the picture to open the pano)

Pont de Bir-Hakeim by Christian Kleiman (click the picture to open the pano)

Banyan Tree by John Hill

Unlocking the treasure chest: The emerging language of VR storytelling, by Eric Darnell of Baobab Studios (Part 1 of 2)

I was a Journalism major at the University of Colorado as an undergrad student. I started taking film classes just to learn how to cut a news story together and got really interested in film. Then in 1983, when I was flipping through the channels and saw a PBS documentary on computer animation, which I’d never seen before, I was blown away. I knew what I wanted to do with my life.

15 Virtual Reality Trends We’re Predicting for 2017

2016 is fast drawing to a close. And while many will be glad to see the back of it, for those of us who work and play with Virtual Reality, it has been a most exciting year. By the time the bells ring out signalling the start of a new year, the total number of VR users will exceed 43 million. This is a market on the move, projected to be worth $30bn by 2020. If it’s to meet that valuation, then we believe 2017 will be an incredibly important year in the lifecycle of VR hardware and software development.

The female perspective: Takeaways from my experience watching VR porn made for dudes

Last week, I got to experience something I never thought possible as a woman: sex from the male perspective. The future is here, my friends. And though it was an interesting anthropological experiment, it was not particularly sexy to look down and see … that.  But that’s what I saw, courtesy of Naughty America at CES in Las Vegas. The company was tucked away in a sad meeting room off the show floor, reminiscent of a glass smoking room at the airport, as if to send a message. Keep the animals in their cage.

The first Virtual Reality X-ray training with Virtual Medical Coaching

The Writer had the opportunity to put on the VR googles and what was a vacant booth suddenly became a full Hospital Radiology suite. I was able to walk from the Consul room into the examination room. I was able to interact with the X ray tube, manipulate the patient, raise or lower the table and put left or right markers on. After placing the X Ray tube, manipulating the patient’s knee, collimating the beam and even placing the correct “R” side maker onto the X Ray image receptor I walked back to the consul room, and took the radiograph.

This is how Sony plans to make virtual reality films a long-term business

Virtual reality (VR) is a long way off from becoming a money maker for movie bosses and for Sony the challenge to date has been resisting the urge to fuel hype for the medium and instead understand the value it could bring.

Virtually boring: VR really disappoints at CES this year

Call it a virtual disappointment. Or virtually unsurprising. I’ll just say I was virtually underwhelmed. Whatever pun you choose, the virtual reality industry has some explaining to do after this year’s Consumer Electronics Show, during which the biggest product announcements can largely be categorized as “more of the same.”

Virtual Reality Devices: What to Expect In 2017

Virtual reality is actually becoming the biggest market after the smartphone revolution. As we enter in 2017, the Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality would be cheaper and better for consumers, handy for Enterprises. All in all, 2017 will mark the start of a new era for the next big thing, the later half of 2016 manifested the beginning of an ever-growing market with Sony introducing PlayStation 4 VR, Facebook buying Oculus Rift for $2 Billion and launching of HTC Vive VR Edition.

Virtual Reality Takes Fans Inside the World of Watches

Swiss watchmakers are nostalgic by nature. How else to explain their constant reference to a golden era of timekeeping, more than 200 years ago, when masters such as Abraham-Louis Breguet devised the world’s first complicated timepieces?

I tried to work all day in a VR headset and it was horrible

Virtual reality is here. You can pilot a starfighter, make sculptures out of virtual clay and experience award-winning journalism … but can you use it to get some work done?

Cirque Du Soleil Gets New Virtual Reality Experience ‘Dreams of O’

Award-winning virtual reality studio Felix & Paul released a new virtual reality experience in cooperation with Cirque Du Soleil at CES in Las Vegas Thursday. “Dreams of O” takes the viewer on a 12-minute journey into the underwater world of “O,” the Cirque show that’s been playing in Vegas for close to 20 years.


VR headsets will soon lose the cords. Why that’s a problem

On the eve of CES, where virtual reality is set to dominate, the loudest chatter around VR seems to be focused on the dawn of tetherless, high-end VR headsets. The basic idea: to bring the kind of mobility you enjoy with something like the mobile phone-based Samsung Gear VR to premium VR devices like the Oculus Rift and HTC Vive. Some feel that once these higher-end headsets are untethered, VR will truly take off, as we’ll be able to fully immerse ourselves by walking around freely in the real world while jacked into the virtual world. 

Facebook pop-up stores offer taste of VR

No, your eyes are not deceiving you. The Facebook store is real. Consumers and travelers may have bumped into these pop-up Facebook “stores” over the holidays at airports and malls. What the stores are trying to sell is one of the tech sector’s hottest trends — virtual reality.

Not Just For Gaming: Virtual Reality Meditation Helps Women Through Labor Pains

It’s widely acknowledged that the pain experienced during childbirth is pretty rough. Even if you haven’t experienced having a child yourself, seeing women scream in television and films while they give birth to a new baby would make anyone cringe. That’s why doctors have been trying to find ways to help manage, if not completely avoid the pain.

Virtual Reality Is A Renegade Technology That’s Disrupting The Creative Process

I’m far from the first person to suggest that creative companies are currently at a crossroads. Everything around us is shifting, from the media and platforms we’re expected to navigate, to the kinds of ideas our clients expect from us. And it seems that increasingly, we’re falling short of those expectations. Why? A failure on our part for not changing the creative ways we work with technologists and partners to come up with fresh ideas.

Virtual Reality’s Quest for Real Money

Audi is giving customers superpowers at several of its dealerships. People can strap on virtual-reality headsets that give them X-ray vision to peek under car hoods and, just for fun, see what their dream drive would look like parked on the moon, next to asteroid craters.


Science fiction quite often predicts future technology. The very first science fiction movie, 1902’s A Trip to the Moon, predicted the moon landing 67 years later, and it’s also true of Star Trek, the best-known science fiction TV show. Star Trek has augured a host of gadgets that have already seen the light of day, like cell phones and “tricorder”-like devices .

We can’t expect virtual reality to make us better people online

Last week, I got to chat with Epic CEO Tim Sweeney, one of the virtual reality gaming industry’s most prominent figures. Like many others, Sweeney believes that VR has the potential to transform how we interact online, especially as more sophisticated tracking systems translate body language, facial expressions, and other details into digital worlds. More specifically, he thinks virtual reality could make us treat each other better there. Unfortunately, this is almost certainly wrong — and if we wait for it to happen, I fear we’ll ruin social VR in the process.

The troubled history of VR and why next year will make it or break it

Like every child growing up in the Nineties, I spent a good chunk of my time watching the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers. But in laying the foundation for being an adult geek, there was another show I liked much better.

VR may not have made much money, but it’s already revitalising games

2016 has been the kind of year that’s probably best spent with your head in a bucket. Luckily for me, that bucket had two little screens wired into it and all sorts of motion-sensing gadgetry stuck on top. I have no idea how VR works – and from a business sense, I gather that it doesn’t really work all that well at the moment. Yet, despite the fact that I couldn’t afford the hardware myself, and despite the fact that VR games aren’t going to be troubling the charts any time soon, VR’s provided me with my favourite gaming moments of this year – and probably my favourite gaming moments of the last few years.

HoloLens, Magic Leap & SmartGlasses—Lots of Mixed and Augmented Reality Coming to CES 2017

The coming year promises to be a good one for those of us watching the augmented and mixed reality world. And the Consumer Electronics Show (CES), starting Jan. 5 in Las Vegas, Nevada, for its 50th year, is bringing 2017 in with a bang—we’re expecting a ton of great announcements on the horizon.

VFX for 360 VR, and why you are not prepared for it (Part 2)

In part one of this post I explored workflow challenges resulting from how conceptually different 360-video VR is from everything I’ve worked on before in my career as a VFX supervisor. In this part I’ll be diving into technical challenges resulting from requirements and limitations unique to 360-video VR, which I’ve experienced while working on a 360-video web-series for YouTube.

Toymakers are the early adopters pushing AR into the mainstream

In the race to greater consumer adoption, augmented reality is emerging as the early leader, thanks to its adoption by a key consumer market.



Holidays and celebrations are over now and we believe you are ready for another wonderful chapter of our lives – it’s called 2017! We’re sure it is going to be exciting – just as the panoramic photos you have uploaded to 360Cities recently. Have a look!

New Caledonia series by Richard Chesher (click the pictures to open the panos)

This time we start in New Caledonia with this magnificent series of underwater panos. Taking an underwater pano and all the work afterwards may seem like a pretty complicated process, but Richard is making it look easy. Just have a look at this ocean beauty!


Here’s a couple of other panos that Richard has taken in New Caledonia. Worth a look!


Moon Rise and Sunset at Fonts Point in the Borrego Badlands by Allan Der (click the picture to open the pano)

Sunsets are wonderful, no doubt about that. This one is special, though, as Allan managed to capture both sunset and moon rise on the same panoramic photo. Just open it, turn around and enjoy this beauty.


Dusk Falls Over Mei Foo Sun Chuen by wongchichuen (click the picture to open the pano)

Aerial shots of Hong Kong have been a regular part of our Editors’ pick reviews and this edition is no exception. Wonderful clouds over the city that’s slowly getting ready for the upcoming quiet night – this combination works perfectly on this one. But is Hong Kong actually ever quiet?


Want more? More beautiful panoramic photos coming your way!


Grand Place, Brussels by Javier Lopez-Quiles (click the picture to open the pano)

Perez Art museum, Miami by Jaime De La Sotta (click the picture to open the pano)

Basilica del Voto Nacional by Santiago Salinas (click the picture to open the pano)

Exterior of cenotaph of Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh and The cenotaph of Maharaja Madho Singh II by Sergej Esnault (click the pictures to open the panos)

Gardens By The Bay by Julien Mordret (click the picture to open the pano)

Outside the Cologne Cathedral by Florian Knorn (click the picture to open the pano)

Cathedral square, Vilnius by Jonas Nosalis (click the picture to open the pano)

Will VR Technology Change Marketing Forever?

Virtual reality (VR) technology has been discussed and hinted at for years, but we’ve finally seen some significant progress made this year. And while there’s still a lot of ground to be made before it can be considered a mainstream technology, now’s the perfect time to take a look at the role of VR in business and how it will impact marketing, specifically.

Top AR And VR Devices You Must Know in 2016

It is safe to say that the era of Virtual reality (VR) is upon us all over again. The concept of VR is not new. Every other day torrent of devices and content are being launched. The tech space is circulating and continuously being changed.

Virtual Reality Changes the Game for Online Casinos

Forget what you know about online casinos, the game is about to change. The power of virtual reality technology is transforming online casinos into immersive, interactive experiences that are the next best thing to being there. Although social gaming and online gambling platforms have grown loyal customer bases over the last decade, VR casinos will soon begin to siphon off gamers and gamblers, alike, from 2D and 3D gambling platforms.


WHY DO I look like Justin Timberlake?” Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg was on stage wearing a virtual reality headset, feigning surprise at an expressive cartoon simulacrum that seemed to perfectly follow his every gesture.

Fove cofounder talking about VR in 2017

Lochlainn Wilson, CTO and cofounder of Fove has spoken about Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) during the interview to VRstatus. He hardly believes that from a hardware perspectives the upcoming 2017 won’t be a year of major new HDMs.

VR and AR dev spaces are starting to pop up everywhere

We’ve seen a steady stream of physical spaces devoted to VR and AR popping up recently — hubs where VR and AR developers can share resources, experiment, and network.


2016 was the year when a new wave of virtual reality peripherals launched. Despite this, the costs have been high, with few games being made, and the sales haven’t really stunned anyone. The technology just isn’t there yet, in many people’s opinions.

The Best VR Headset for Your Phone So Far

Smartphone VR headsets are a great way to try virtual reality without spending a fortune. They’re the only midrange options between cheap cardboard and expensive, complicated desktop VR devices. In our testing, Google Daydream View narrowly beat out Samsung Gear VR as the best mobile virtual reality headset. It’s comfier to wear and comes with a hand-tracking controller that makes gameplay easier and more immersive. However, the competition is so close, and the tech so new, that you can’t go wrong picking whichever headset works with your phone. (Our main picks only support a handful of Android phones each; iPhone users don’t have good VR options yet.) If you don’t have a phone that works with either, VR isn’t enough reason to buy one, but it could be a factor next time you buy a phone.

Virtual Reality Can Leave You With an Existential Hangover

When Tobias van Schneider slips on a virtual reality headset to play Google’s Tilt Brush, he becomes a god. His fingertips become a fiery paintbrush in the sky. A flick of the wrist rotates the clouds. He can jump effortlessly from one world that he created to another.

Second Life’s creator is building a ‘WordPress for social VR’

None of this is real. The rocks, the stars, the enormous transmitter standing upright like a needle. It’s all a mixture of pixels presented by the Oculus Rift. As I stand on Mars, I urge my senses to surrender to the illusion. I long to be Matt Damon, growing potatoes in a makeshift greenhouse. In reality, I’m standing in a “scene” created by Linden Lab for Sansar, a new virtual-reality platform. A few feet to my left is chief executive Ebbe Altberg, standing in a dinosaur outfit. His avatar waves goofily, breaking my dream within a dream. I can’t help but sigh, accepting once more that I’m just a virtual sightseer.



We wish a happy and healthy holiday season to all and lots of happiness, health, 

and success in 2017 as well.


Thank you for your support, feedback, and wonderful panoramas and 360º videos.


We hope 2017 brings lots of wonderful panoramas, stereoscopic 360º images, 360º videos,

virtual reality experiences and fast Internet connection for all of us.


The Oculus Touch Controllers are a Modern Miracle

The controllers come in a package as sturdy and stylish (but bulky) as the headset itself. Each controller takes 2 AA batteries, and allegedly lasts for about 9 hours on a single charge. There is no on/off switch – the buttons are capacitive (more on that later), so even with vibration and constant use, they can last a while. It has been over a week of frequent use now, and they are both still in the green – so it’s far, far more than 9 hours.

Sensics is Building a VR Headset Specially Made for Arcades and Theme Parks

OSVR co-founder and long-time HMD maker Sensics is building a new ‘Goggles for Public VR’ headset which is designed for the unique needs of the Out-of-Home market.

Now you can talk to customer support in virtual reality

PNB MetLife India Insurance Company has announced an on-demand virtual reality customer service platform called “conVRse”.

The platform will enable insurance experts to interact with their customers through a virtual reality headset, in a 3D simulated environment.

AR & VR at The Museum

We love that museums ignite the human imagination. So naturally, we’re excited that virtual technology has two major roles in the cultural education of today’s museums. Augmented Reality can enhance the experience of interacting with museum exhibits. Virtual Reality can bring the museum to you, be it a trip downtown or around the world

AR Assisted Surgery & Medical Training with Matt Witkamp of Citizen, Inc. – Show 5

Matt Witkamp has seen the future of AR-assisted surgery and medical training. In fact his team at Citizen Inc., in partnership with Stanford Medicine and Microsoft, have literally invented it.

Virtual reality doesn’t mean what you think it means

Blame the media. Blame Google search. Blame lazy marketing. But just like hoverboards that don’t actually hover, everything you view in Google Cardboard or Samsung Gear VR or any number of other VR headsets is not necessarily “virtual reality.”

Best VR Headset: Which headset is worth your money?

Now that the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive and PlayStation VR are all finally here, it’s time to decide which headset to put your money on this Christmas or if you’re thinking about taking the plunge in 2017.

PC owners can choose between Oculus Rift and the HTC Vive – the most advanced headsets on the market. Both are seriously powerful devices, but they need equally powerful PCs to run.



Personalized PBL and Virtual Reality Bring History To Life

Because we believe in the potential of personalized, project-based learning, we’re big fans of New Tech Network (NTN)–a national nonprofit design partner for comprehensive school change. Through its proven school model, a project-based learning platform and powerful professional development, they coach schools toward lasting change and ongoing improvement. There are nearly 200 schools in 28 states and Australia in the New Tech Network.

Six steps to successful virtual reality marketing

The number of people owning virtual reality headsets is predicted to grow to over 200 million by 2020. With all this in mind I expect a surge in brands looking to introduce VR tech into their campaigns. Now we are looking at a bright new future for marketing thanks to this amazing creative tool. But, the marketing community always has the ability to foul up with its propensity to over-hype and under-deliver.

VR Post: Hybrid workflows are key

Shooting immersive content is one thing, but posting it for an ever-changing set of players and headsets is whole other multidimensional can of beans. With early help from software companies that have developed off-the-shelf ways to tackle VR post — and global improvements to their storage and networking infrastructures — some facilities are diving into immersive content by adapting their existing post suites with a hybrid set of new tools. As with everything else in this business, it’s an ongoing challenge to stay one step ahead.